A Machmeter is a instrument that uses the ratio of true air speed and the local speed of sound , some aircrafts use a constant mach number rather than a constant speed for cruising operations.
The term “Barber Pole” refers to different areas of the airspeed indicator showing at different stages what is the operating range for several parameters as can be seen below.
Flight Management System (FMS)
The flight management system was introduced in the 1980s, it helps predefined flight plan to calculate and display the aircrafts lateral and vertical trajectory providing guidance.
Safety in avionics
Regulatory bodies, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in Europe, play a crucial role in overseeing and enforcing safety regulations. They conduct thorough reviews and audits to ensure compliance with safety standards.
What Is DO-254?
DO-254: Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware
DO-254 is the equivalent standard in the United States, developed by RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics) in collaboration with EUROCAE. It is titled “Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware” and provides guidance on the development and certification of airborne electronic hardware. DO-254 is recognized by aviation authorities such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and is widely used in the aerospace industry.
What is ED-80?
ED-80: Guidelines for the Certification of Airborne Electronic Hardware
ED-80 is a document published by EUROCAE (European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment) that provides guidelines for the certification of airborne electronic hardware. It covers aspects related to design assurance and the development process of electronic hardware used in the aviation industry. The document outlines the processes and considerations for ensuring the reliability and safety of electronic hardware in airborne systems.
What is DO-178C
DO-178C is a comprehensive standard that plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety and airworthiness of software in airborne systems. Adherence to DO-178C is typically a requirement for obtaining certification from aviation authorities such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in Europe.
In summary, DO-178C, DO-254, and ED-80 are standards and guidelines that address different aspects of avionics development. DO-178C is specific to software, DO-254 is specific to electronic hardware, and ED-80 provides guidelines for both hardware and software in the context of airborne electronic systems. Compliance with these standards is essential for obtaining certification for avionics systems (link)
The paper above highlighted talks about technical, ethical, environmental and societal impact considerations of avionics systems, when writing report, refer back to this.
Aircraft failures examples and what went wrong (link)
Electronical flight instrument
- Primary flight display (PFD)
- Multi-function display (MFD) / Navigation display (ND)
- Engine indications and crew alerting system (EICAS) / electronic centralized aircraft monitoring(ECAM)