Editing is a sequence of shots in the film. It’s the order and duration of shots, visual transitions from scene to scene and visual effects.n



Montage is editing shots together to make the sequence have the same meaning. Originally developed by Sergi Eisenstein putting unrelated clips together to form a meaning. Now used in film to show passage of time. A classic example of this is 1976 film ‘Rocky’ showing Rocky training for his fight. The montage starts with him failing then ends with him progressively getting better and better until he is a professional.

Shot reverse shot

A technique used in film and television to show characters or objects facing each other but in different shots. Usually used following the 80-degree rule and used for conversations so we could see both of the characters’ reactions.


Cutting back and forth between shots

Kuleshov effect

Cutting shots that are otherwise unrelated to create an emotion. I will attempt to recreate this with pictures. The first picture is a random person running presumably just so they can stay fit and the second picture is a trophy. They are unrelated but when put together the connotation is that the person is training for a competition and the trophy is what is motivating them.

Can Running and Other Exercise Boost Immunity? | ACTIVEWinners Gold Trophy Cup Turin Presentation Cup Award | North East ...

Metric and Rhythm editing

Editing each frame/ shot after a certain amount of time consistently. For example; in ‘Baby Driver’ in the opening car chase scene the editing is done according to the time signature of the song. Rhythm editing is editing to create a sense of rhythm.

Tonal editing and Intellectual editing

Two images that have emotional themes that are similar. E.g a train going into a tunnel to symbolise sex. Intellectual editing is bringing a new message from shots that are meaningless on their own. It is very similar to the Kuleshov effect.


Continuing with the shot that was happening. The order of editing.

Matching eye level

Cutting in accordance with what the character is looking at. To see from their eyes/ their point of view.

Parallel Editing

Two things happening at the same time and edited after the other. A perfect example of this is the Christopher Nolan film ‘Inception’. The film itself is edited in parallel editing throughout as it makes sense to the narrative. The first part which is them asleep in the car and then the actual ‘Inception’ world. We continuously cut back to show them still asleep so we know what’s happening in both worlds. The pictures below show that as something happens in one world especially to do with gravity, the same is repeated in the other world.

Inception movie review & film summary (2010) | Roger EbertInception slow motion ragdolls - YouTube

Sound design

The few things that make up sound design include; dialogue, foley, diegetic, non-diegetic and internal diegetic/ subliminal.


Internal diegetic

Thoughts/ flashback playing in a character’s head this would be recorded in a recording studio outside of the scene then played over it.

Diegetic and non- diegetic sound

Diegetic sound is the sound that is natural produced within the film for example; singing, dialogue etc. None diegetic sound is any sound that is not natural in that world e.g the score of the film or any narration.




Cinematography is a way to show what the character sees and also how they feel through framing and camera. It’s been rapidly changing with technology.



A film technique by Dziga Vertov which is filming/doing things different from how the human eye would see it to offer a new perspective.


Using images/ symbols to show ideas.



Literary design

The literary design is focused on the writing, character motivations, script and screenplay. Things such as character and story motivations. Typically, the choices a character makes drives the story so the writers usually put them under pressure by making them choose between two different choices.

When writing a screenplay, you have to have a genre in mind. This helps because each genre has certain conventions and character tropes to help the audience recognise that genre. Genre can be hard to define as most films tend to mix or jump between genres.



Is the portrayal of a certain gender to appeal typically in more sexual or less than in comparison to the opposite sex. The male gaze is the portrayal of women to men which typically works in film by having women dressed/ filmed over in an overly sexualised way.

Yes, there's such a thing as a 'female gaze.' But it's not what ...Margot-Robbie-Wears-Tiny-Shorts-To-Play-Harley-Quinn-In-Suicide ...Pin on Low Rise


The audience is the collective group of people who watch the film or who the film is intended for.

Breaking the fourth wall

Getting rid of the metaphorical wall between the narrative and the audience. For example; talking directly to the audience, interacting physically, showing the camera crew/ set. A modern day film that does this throughout is ‘Deadpool’ by consistently talking to the audience and using the actor’s real life name and accomplishments as part of the jokes.Deadpool' Is a Potty-Mouthed Splatterfest. A Really Funny One : NPR


Something you watch as opposed to a story.


Writing for actors and their movement.


Get people to look at things differently.


A category that a film falls under/ ways that a film can be categorised. Different genres of films include; romance, comedy, action ect. Films often cross genres and are it becomes difficult for them to fall under one specific genre.

Denotation and Connotation

Denotation is what something is as we see it. An example of the would be a red dress on a beautiful lady. We see what she’s wearing and describe it so. On the other hand, connotation is what it represents. In the description, the connotation would be that the red dress represents romance and lure or blood which could suggest the female being a femme fetal.


A set of ideas used to explain the world.