Week 10- Digital Cities


It is the project that collectively requires improving the accessibility of digital platform in European cities. The objective of this initiative project is to develop the pilot testing tools and methods for collecting and distributing information regarding public space accessibility. It is a sustainable development initiative goal and one type of global action in order to secure more resources, leadership and applying smart solutions.

In order to get active for this project, the online maps are one of the great options     for indicating the ways and accessible places. One of the key points is that visualising the data in several ways that are highly attractive and intuitive for target citizens of digital city. Sustainable smart city is both a place to live and an economic region that delivers sustainable development through the systematic development of creative technologies, services and materials. Through minimising the impact of smart cities to environment, they must function better at every level. To make a city green, most important ranking systems are included. The environmental impact per person, generation of renewable energy, percentage of citizen utilising the public transport, recycling the programs and green spaces are the factors beyond a green city development. The entire carbon emissions from the digital ecosystem are remarkable. The digital revolution interacts to all aspects of the physical and human in several varieties of alternative ways. The global data centres are predicted to equate 2 percent of worldwide emissions equivalent to the emissions from aviation worldwide. The Green peace have been driven a great awareness around the internet and data centres.

The new GPS satellites could provide better positioning along with accurate results because of new set of atomic clocks performed externally at each satellite. The satellites have enough transmitting power and the reception of GPS is has more reliability in processing the data regarding correct positioning even in indoors and urban areas. Thus, several technological solutions and applications inspire the alternation of behaviour along with the digital city buildings utilised by efficient sensors of network and energy. 


Elliot, A., & Urry, J. (2010). Mobile Lives. Oxford: Routledge: Introduction and Conclusion , references.

UN (n.d.) The Sustainable Development Agenda, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda/



Rwanda is a rural country and thus blood products and medical facilities cannot be kept at every health care centre that increased attraction of Africa towards Drone Technology. In Rwanda, Africa the unnamed aerial vehicles are used for transporting medical equipment and essentials within the country for ensuring proper healthcare facilities (Flood, 2016).

Roles and responsibilities of drones

The major role of drones in Rwanda is the delivery of medical services and equipment which are essential for securing and saving people’s life. Due to lack of infrastructure and road facilities, the drone plays a crucial role in transporting medical products and equipment to the healthcare centre within less time utilization (Flood, 2016)

Figure: Drones deliver- Health care  Source: (Trucker, 2020)

Future developments in drown

Rwanda wants to make the drone as a supplementary transport system that contributes to facilitating the country with medical services. The aim is to establish 18 ports on the National Network for Rwanda with less capital investment. The project has consumed $70,000 for building low-tech, steel free structure till May 2016 (Flood, 2016).


Development and deployment of drones are at the forefront for logistics in Swiss port since 2015. The drones are responsible for transporting special healthcare deliveries in the corporation in various regions of Switzerland (Corrigan, 2019)

Figure: Swiss Port Drone  –Source: (Corrigan, 2019)



In 2018, JD.com has become the first company in China to secure a license for providing logistics services with the operation of drones. The operation contributed to making deliveries in challenging areas that increased the business and popularity of the company in the world (Corrigan, 2019).   


Corrigan, F., 2019. DroneZone. (Online) Available at; https://www.dronezon.com/drones-for-good/drone-parcel-pizza-delivery-service/ (Accessed on 1st April 2020).

Flood, Z., 2016. From Killing Machines to Agents of Hope: The Future of Drones in Africa. (Online) Available at; https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/27/africas-drone-rwanda-zipline-kenya-kruger (Accessed on 1st April 2020).

Hersh, M., 2019. Learning and Teaching Medicine in Rwanda. (online) Available at; https://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2019/11/13/learning-and-teaching-medicine-in-rwanda-part-ii/ (Accessed on 1st April 2020).

Trucker, J., 2020. Drones Deliver Healthcare. (Online) Available at; https://www.dronesinhealthcare.com/ (Accessed on 1st April 2020).



In this modern age, I have identified different types of games and application which are interesting to play with friends and also make more enjoyment. Talking about Pokémon Go, my experience with this game was marvelous and adventurous. This game is for both android and IOS and when I have installed this application on my mobile phone, I don’t know about this game, how to play and find Pokémon. After installing this game I found there is some briefing about the process and getting an introduction, it is required to select one of the starters among three Pokémon’s which are (Charmander, Squirtle, or Bulbasaur) (Fettrow and Ross, 2017). The whole game is based on these three processing which is catching Pokémon, visiting Pokéstops, and gym battles, where the main process of this game is to find Pokémon and catch them from different locations which sound more interesting. We have to find different Pokémon’s from different locations.


A Pokémon catching is interesting process where you have to walk different locations as mention in your mobile phone in the mapping direction and tab on the Pokémon which directly connected to you with catching interface. There is a more advance process through the indication of the colorful ring surrounding of Pokémon and which are describing through different levels. Red reflects difficulty levels, yellow for moderate and green reflects an easy level of catching a Pokémon.


Pokestops reflexing the local location where Pokémon exists and it is an interesting process of battle with finding Pokémon to catch it. The gym is also an important part of the game, it helps to train your Pokémon and provide XP, extra power to you Pokémon to fight more efficiently against your competitors. Tap on the enemy Pokémon and decide how effectively you want to fight, here I customize the process of battling by light and hard mode (LeBlanc and Chaput, 2017).



Fettrow, E.A.W. and Ross, D., 2017. Games as a Force for Good: Strategies for Incorporating Pokémon Go in the Classroom. Kentucky Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance18.

LeBlanc, A.G. and Chaput, J.P., 2017. Pokémon Go: a game changer for the physical inactivity crisis?. Preventive medicine101, pp.235-237.

Week -6 City Dashboards & Open Data


Dashboards are information management tools that are used to track the performances and other key data points relevant to a business, department processes. Through the applications of data visualizations, dashboards ease complex traffic data to provide road users with a glance awareness of current performance.

The use of dashboards to collect, analyze and display data in numerous ways in cities

City dashboards have drawn accumulative interest from both city workers and inhabitants. Dashboards have the capability of gathering, visualizing, analyzing and informing the local performance to support the viable growth of smart metropolises. Dashboards, therefore, provide expedient implements for assessing and enabling urban setup constituents and services. Dashboards provide a goal view of performance metrics and serve as an effective foundation for further dialogue. Moreover, the business aptitude tool is used to show data imaginings in a manner that if easily and closely understood.

The use of dashboards in measuring and monitoring

Geospatial dashboards offer fine grained measurements by providing views and factors driving the metrics. Dozens of cameras measure the nature of traffic that is moving in any given place in the city. The dashboard system provides an overview of the nature of commercial transport that is active in any given sector (Kitchin and McArdle, 119). The dashboard also provides the impact of transportation on air quality. Moreover, the dashboard provides the managers with an overview of how to keep the city clean and livable.

The use of data visualizations

Data visualization takes facts and converts them to visual context. Data visualizations convert data and make the information comprehensible for the human to detect outlines, movements, and outliers in clusters of data. Therefore, data visualization is important for maintaining and managing traffic from a central place. Data visualizations help in addressing the multivariate nature of spatiotemporal urban mobility data (Hui, 137). Furthermore, data visualization supports the analytical tasks of domain experts in the transport industry.

The kind of data used in visualizations is spatiotemporal data. This kind of data helps traffic managers to have a global understanding of urban traffic status in the level of a reading system. Spatiotemporal data, therefore, is useful in traffic regulation and route management.

Role of open data

Open data helps create smart cities through the provision of sustainable and efficient growth. The openness and availability of data create transparency to the administrations thus allowing greater creativity by the stakeholders to seek and develop traffic solutions.

Political and commercial agendas in artificial intelligence sites.

Artificial intelligence has been used by the government to access its transport and mobility services. Administrations have been adopting both the legislative and non-legislative initiatives in the field of AI. AI is potential purpose expertise which provides tremendous opportunities in the transportation industries and other fields. concisely, AI has substantial risks such as labor displacement, strategic instability as well as sacrificing safety and other transport values to the technology (Leszczynski 1703).



Reference Cited

Hui, Eric G. “Data Visualizations.” Learn R for Applied Statistics, 2018, pp. 129-172.

Kitchin, Rob, and Gavin McArdle. “Urban data and city dashboards.” Data and the City, 2017, pp. 111-126.

Leszczynski, A. “Speculative futures: Cities, data, and governance beyond smart urbanism.” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, vol. 48, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1691-1708, doi:10.1177/0308518×16651445.



The notion of the public space will be associated with the dream like experiences of a city structure. In this context Berry has also stated that the presence of the different media platforms will be characterized by a transformation of the domain of public into the phase of publicness. The locative factor in the digital media is associated with the different mediums of time and space for the visual media like the television or the photography media.

Ritche in his analysis of the locative factor sin the digital media has proposed this analysis for the purpose of the establishment of the distance between the various ends visible in the Oxford Street. The bound was also created on the various computerized media. The bounds have also instructed that the user of this type of media in order to take the pictures of the underground station (Headrick 2-017).

According to Ritchie in the year 2014, there were several mobile forms of the locative nature of the narrative that will be navigated into the different spaces. The two spaces will be physical and the digital media forms. This principle will also apply to the various action bound apps because the various users will be compelled to accomplish the said mission. One of the main constraints that Ritchie has elaborated is the process of the possible inaccuracy that will occur if the user is bound to the various time bound manner when the users will be asked to form an effective evaluation of the time period to walk from the two ends of a single street.

In this context the various public space domains, the public space will be heavily dependent on the digital space perspective that will make users unable to accomplish the bounds. The locative networks will be based on the different technologies of the digital media that will turn into a relatively new phenomenon. The locative aspect of the digital media will also transform the +site-specific notions along with the other practices ((Sheller 2016).




Headrick Taylor, K., 2017. Learning along lines: Locative literacies for reading and writing the city. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 26(4), pp.533-574.

Sheller, M., 2016. Mobile mediality: Location, dislocation, augmentation. In New mobilities regimes in art and social sciences (pp. 335-352). Routledge.

Week 4 Digital Aspect of the Digital Cities

The concept of the digital cities is being developed all over the globe. Digital cities can integrate the urban information in both the achievable and the real time limits in order to create the different public spaces for the people to live in the cities. In the context of the urban space we can refer to the code space concept as given by Rob Kitchin and Martin Dodge. They mainly discussed about the computer code that ranges from the different digital mode of the control system that will create the new ways to undertake the various risks. The production of space as both of them has argued is the factor that is increasingly dependent on the various codes that will be required in order to produce the space concept (Ishida 2017).Dodge has also illustrated the idea of the different conceptual tools which will be required for the understanding of the various forms of interrelationships that will exist in the domain of space, software and in the context of the everyday life.

The concept of software in the digital aspect of the urban cities refers to the various animating functions that characterize a particular city through their various monitoring infrastructure that will regulate the flow contained in the different activities of the Daily life. The research regarding the various urban landscapes related to the concept of code will usually progress from their initial position of the non-representable form of the theory in which the different analytical lens that will relate to the ontological form of description. In this context of the city approach there will not be a fixed set of geometric and the hard objects in the city that will form the provisional objects that will take the digital form and the similar associated functions that will define the ways in which way they will be performed (Willis and Aurigi 2017).




Ishida, T., 2017, April. Digital city, smart city and beyond. In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion (pp. 1151-1152).

Willis, K.S. and Aurigi, A., 2017. Digital and smart cities. Routledge.


Data and the smart city: Critical perspectives

A number of examples discuss what it means to be ‘ smarter ‘ on BBC Radio 4 Podcast in smart cities reveals the implications of the innovation approach for residents living in the smart city of Songdo. The BBC Radio 4 Podcast demonstrates that there have been many technological and infrastructure improvements to the city to make it “smarter “: more secure, sustainable for community and economically beneficial to citizens of that city.

The first example is that in Songdo is the implementation of a smart waste system that enables waste and waste trucks to be eliminated, with 76 percent of the waste being recycled.The waste system collects waste from the kitchens directly to a refinery.this approach can be seen as sustaining the environment and would probably help to keep the atmosphere clean and more desirable for tourist.


The other example is in Songdo was designed to track sensors ‘ temperature, energy consumption and traffic. Such sensors could alert you directly if your bus is overdue. And notify the local government of any possible problems.Therefore, the government could use these sensors to reliably view the environment and its major pollutants helping citizens to understand the nuances of air pollution in their everyday lives.Some people see this as a solution to a safety environmental.

Despite these key improvements and a range of initiatives over the last decade,Songdo is also a town under constant surveillance 500 cameras provide a complete grid coverage to monitor traffic or detect’ suspicious’ behaviour. Even the opening of the sewer cover is immediately notified to the IFEZ control centre in one of the towers in Songdo.It shows much of the government’s effect and implication. (Le Monde.fr, 2020)

According to (Miller, 2011p 24) The implication is that smart solutions based on traffic data collected in one place are unlikely to be universally applicable.That means not everyone is in agreement with the government’s way. Therefore, people will contradict on the way of smart cities will operate as being only beneficial.



BBC News. (2020). Has ‘smart’ Songdo been a success?. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-23757738 [Accessed 17 Feb. 2020)

Le Monde.fr. (2020). Songdo, ghetto for the affluent. [online] Available at: https://www.lemonde.fr/smart-cities/article/2017/05/29/songdo-ghetto-for-the-affluent_5135650_4811534.html [Accessed 17 Feb. 2020].

Miller, V. (2011) ‘Understanding Digital Culture’ Key Elements of Digital Media London,Sage publications. pp 24



Week 2: Smart Cities and Digital Culture

When thinking  ‘Smart Cities’ it seems contrary to what one would intuitively expect

Cities are closely interconnected with the spread of information technology. (Townsend,

A.M. 2013 p 6)

The use of Manovich (2011) implies that these cases can be examined from several perspectives with many examples. Therefore, I concentrate on the participation in the transport infrastructure of a smart city of smart solutions, which relate to ways of constructing and using digital media and to the environment that digital media can create.


The case study is in India in the town of Kolkata, which has yet not to become a smart city and where an interview was conducted with a local, about the transportation situation in his town and mentioned the fact that, there are too many vehicles,buses, bicycle cars and animals on the roads in every area of the country. At peak office time, it is even more unbearable because no one follows the road system. (Rose 2018) provides an excellent example of the links occurring between smart cities and smart transport and points out that smart cities can benefit from slow traffic reduction, enhanced road safety and the development of road connexions. In terms of smart environment development, all types of sensors will be accessible in order to track all kinds of traffic. The use of the Internet connecting with our mobile phone to ensure that the person living in the smart city gets information’s on an alternative route so as not to experience long-term traffic. This practice venture on the positive implication of technology in a city to facilitate lifestyle.

First, once we start integrating these different data sets, the algorithm will determine the closest route to where the traffic will be driven and the automated billboard will tell everyone where to go. In the most general sense, a database can be described as a structured data collection  (Manovich, 2001: 218). Second, the algorithm should begin to learn from the recurring pattern of data that is emerging. Nevertheless, the intervention of machine learning or artificial intelligence may require less human and more accurate information. The fundamental question is would be is the population whiling to corporate in this way of being monitored.More often than not, digital media objects break away, and are generally in continuous growth, constantly dialoguing and integrating themselves with the public and with other digital products and technologies Manovich (2001) refer to this as the property of variability.




Hello friends!

My name is Clauvys Lee , I’m a young man, working as a freelance fashion stylist, personal shopper and creative director. Raised in Paris, France with a Gabon background, my creative inspirations come from lifestyles that have a visual impact.

I have completed my previous degree in fashion communication & business studies at the University of Brighton.  While studying the importance and impact of digital media in our society and how it affects our generation, this would be one of the main reasons I have been keen to learn about digital media culture and society.