Editing is a sequence of shots in the film. It’s the order and duration of shots, visual transitions from scene to scene and visual effects.n


  • Montage: Montage is editing shots together to make the sequence have the same meaning. Originally developed by Sergi Eisenstein putting unrelated clips together to form a meaning.
  • Shot reverse shot: A technique used in film and television to show characters or object facing each other but in different shots. Usually used following the 80-degree rule.
  • Cross-cutting: Cutting back and forth between shots
  • Kuleshov effect: Cutting shots that are otherwise unrelated to create an emotion
  • Metric: Editing each frame/ shot after a certain amount of time consistently. For example; in ‘Baby Driver’ in the opening car chase scene the editing is done according to the time signature of the song.
  • Rhythm editing: Editing to create a sense of rhythm.
  • Tonal editing: Two images that have emotional themes that are similar. E.g a train going into a tunnel to symbolise sex
  • Intellectual editing: Bringing a new message from shots that are meaningless on their own.
  • Continuity: Continuing with the shot that was happening. The order of editing.
  • Matching eye level: Cutting in accordance with what the character is looking at. To see from their eyes/ their point of view.


Visual design


Things that make up visual design include; Performance, blocking, lighting, hair and makeup, costume and set design. The dark Knight scene analysis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ChPTKPzB4I from 1:18 The writing highlights the Joker’s psychological strength and dominance which juxtaposes Batman’s physical dominance that … Continue reading

Task 2: One shot film

Research: Early cinema

The early cinema (1905) was just about getting the audience used to seeing moving images for the first time. The key differences between novels and film are; novels include descriptions, inner emotions/ saying exactly as it is. This is compared to film where you don’t necessarily get spoon-fed exposition, there are visual representations instead.


My film was inspired by silent films in early cinema where the films existed only to keep audiences in suspense and shock them. For example in ‘How it feels to be run over’ by Hepworth in 1900. I wanted to show mine as a modern-day woman getting ready for bed but to film in a way that feels as though the audience is watching me while laying down. This works effectively in capturing the audience’s attention because despite it being a mundane task, you almost expect something unexpected to happen especially by the way I walk out of the frame and come back with no cuts to show where I’ve gone. I also chose to have harsh lighting using just a small lamp pointed directly at me to create hard shadows because if this had been made in 1900 it would have been in black and white so the hard shadows would have worked to make it look more mysterious.

I did two versions, one in black and white to better suit the time where films were not in colour due to technological limitations and one that was not edited at all (With the original colour).

Reference Page


  • Futurism (2018). Life-like CGI Movie Sets. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0mckvMGqTc [Accessed 19 Feb. 2020].
  • FERRYANTO, S. (2016). SIMAK FOTO SEBELUM-SESUDAH 8 FILM INI DIBERI EFEK CGI, KEREN!. [image] Available at: https://www.kapanlagi.com/foto/berita-foto/internasional/simak-foto-sebelum-sesudah-8-film-ini-diberi-efek-cgi-keren.html [Accessed 19 Feb. 2020].
  • Digital synopsis (2016). 46 Famous Movie Scenes Before And After Special Effects. [image] Available at: https://digitalsynopsis.com/design/movies-before-after-green-screen-cgi/ [Accessed 19 Feb. 2020].



Kino- eye and none narrative film

Due to the industrial revolution, things needed to change in terms of entertainment. Art became more abstract to create a new meaning. Some of the film types include; modernist film, Avantgarde, Kino-eye and Non-narrative.



My film was influenced by non-narrative films. I wanted to make a short non-narrative surrealist film similar to Salvador Dali. The layering of the different videos into one made it look more unusual. I also played with colour putting some of it in black and white but keeping some in colour, I went with interesting shapes and things that don’t belong as a motif which made it look interesting and still have it make sense to a certain extent. Despite it being non-narrative, I still wanted it to look stylistically the same and not like random shots combined together,

Blog task 3: screenplay

Narrative and characterisation in cinema

Characters in film typically have consequences due to their actions which is how we get the plot. Great characters engage the audience. Character development is shown through; description, action, dialogue, interior thought and backstory.

The narrative is broken down into; genre, the main protagonist, a goal, obstacle and what’s important (why are you making this).




Cinematography is a way to show what the character sees and also how they feel through framing and camera. It’s been rapidly changing with technology.


  • Kino-eye: A film technique by Dziga Vertov which is filming/doing things different from how the human eye would see it to offer a new perspective.
  • Iconography: Using images/ symbols to show ideas.



Literary design

The literary design is focused on the writing, character motivations, script and screenplay. Things such as character and story motivations. Typically, the choices a character makes drives the story so the writers usually put them under pressure by making them choose between two different choices.

When writing a screenplay, you have to have a genre in mind. This helps because each genre has certain conventions and character tropes to help the audience recognise that genre. Genre can be hard to define as most films tend to mix or jump between genres.


  • Gaze: Is the portrayal of a certain gender to appeal typically in more sexual or less than in comparison to the opposite sex.
  • Audience: The audience is the collective group of people who watch the film or who the film is intended for.
  • Breaking the fourth wall: Getting rid of the metaphorical wall between the narrative and the audience.
  • Spectacle: Something you watch as opposed to a story.
  • Screenwriting: Writing for actors and their movement.
  • Defamiliarisation: Get people to look at things differently.
  • Genre: A category that a film falls under/ ways that a film can be categorised.
  • Denotation: What it is.
  • Connotation: What it represents.
  • Ideology: A set of ideas used to explain the world.