Category Archives: Resources


The Stroop Effect is one of the most widely employed tasks in cognitive psychology. Originally designed by J.R Stroop (1935), it refers to the interference that an automated skill such as reading causes when carrying out a non-reading task.

In the original Stroop task (Stroop, 1935), participants were shown a list of colour words (e.g. red, green, blue, yellow) or symbols (like XXXXX), printed in different coloured ink. They were then asked to name the colour of the ink, and the experimenter measured how long it took them to finish naming all the colours on list. Stroop found that participants took a lot longer to name the colours on the list  where the colour words and the colour if the ink were mismatched (incongruent) than when they were congruent, or when the stimulus was a list of symbols (Stroop also included trials where participants were asked to read colour words printed in black ink – you can read the original paper here):

Sometimes researchers would divide the time it took a participant to read the list by the number of items on the list to get an approximate reaction time for individual words (See MacLeod, 1991, for a review of over 400 studies of the Stroop effect in the first 50 years since the original publication). Nowadays, it is common to administer the Stroop task on computer, which allows the researcher to present one word at a time and get highly accurate reaction times in millisecond range for each stimulus.

The Psychology Lab can offer a a ready-to-go Stroop task built in SuperLab – software for building psychology experiments and collecting data – which you are welcome to use in your study. The Lab’s version of the Stroop task takes up to 10 minutes to complete. The experiment consist of:

  • 24 practice trials:
    • 8 trials where participants are asked to classify the font colour of “XXXXX” symbols
    • 8 trials where participants are asked to classify the font colour of non-colour words, such as tree, desk, shoe, etc.
    • 8 trials where participants are asked to classify the font colour of colour words, such as blue, green, red, and yellow.
  • 120 experimental trials where participants are asked to classify the colour of colour words. Half of the trials are congruent condition and half are incongruent condition. Congruent and incongruent trials are presented in random order, with the option for a short break after 60 trials.

Participants can respond to stimuli by using keys of a computer keyboard, or one of the response pads with coloured keys.

The Stroop task available in the Psychology Lab is highly customisable. You can adjust the number of trials presented, the instructions shown to participants as well as the type of stimuli. Here are some examples of how the Stroop Task can be modified:

  • Emotional Stroop effect (see Frings et al., for a recent review) refers to a phenomenon where participants are faster in classifying ink colour of neutral words, as opposed to emotional words such as attack, death, sad, etc. This effect has be utilised in studying social anxiety (Askew, Hagel & Morgan, 2015), emotion regulation (Kappes & Bermeitinger, 2016), depression (Mitterschiffthaler, 2008), or PTSD (Cisler et al., 2011).
  • Metcalf and Pammer (2011) assessed attentional bias in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers by including game related words in the Stroop task
  • White (2009) used added words related to sociability to the Stroop Task to explore whether salient gender identity activates gender stereotypes among student population.

We can offer advice or training on how to modify the experiment to suit your needs. Contact the psychology technicians if you’d like to learn more about how the lab can help with your study.



Askew, C., Hagel, A., & Morgan, J. (2015). Vicarious learning of children’s social-anxiety-related fear beliefs and emotional stroop bias. Emotion, 15(4), 501-510. 10.1037/emo0000083

Cisler, J. M., Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Adams, T. G., Babson, K. A., Badour, C. L., & Willems, J. L. (2011). The emotional stroop task and posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(5), 817-828. 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.03.007

Frings, C., Englert, J., Wentura, D., & Bermeitinger, C. (2010;2009;). Decomposing the emotional stroop effect. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(1), 42-49. 10.1080/17470210903156594

Kappes, C., & Bermeitinger, C. (2016). The emotional stroop as an emotion regulation task. Experimental Aging Research, 42(2), 161-194. 10.1080/0361073X.2016.1132890

MacLeod, C. (1991). Half a century of research on the stroop effect – an integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109(2), 163-203. 10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.163

Metcalf, O., & Pammer, K. (2011). Attentional bias in excessive massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers using a modified stroop task. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1942-1947. 10.1016/j.chb.2011.05.001

Mitterschiffthaler, M., Williams, S., Walsh, N., Cleare, A., Donaldson, C., Scott, J., & Fu, C. (2008). Neural basis of the emotional stroop interference effect in major depression. Psychological Medicine, 38(2), 247-256. 10.1017/S0033291707001523

Stroop, J. (1935; 1992). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions (reprinted from journal experimental-psychology, vol 18, pg 643-662, 1935). Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 121(1), 15-23.

White, J. B., & Gardner, W. L. (2009). Think women, think warm: Stereotype content activation in women with a salient gender identity, using a modified stroop task. Sex Roles, 60(3), 247-260. 10.1007/s11199-008-9526-z

Guidance for online recruitment

Here are a few documents that provide additional guidance for online recruitment. If you’re a psychology student, please note that these documents are meant to be used as an addition to the online recruitment workshop that you would have attended.

Getting started Summary of key
functions for those
who have already
attended the workshop.

Download Getting Started guide

(mobile-friendly: Getting Started)

Question types Overview
of all question types
that can be created
with Qualtrics

Download Question Types guide

(mobile-friendly: Question Types)

Detailed Question Types guide
Uploading graphics
to surveys
How to upload images,
audio, and video files to your surveys

Download Graphics guide

(mobile-friendly: Graphics guide)

Detailed Graphics guide
Hot spot questions How to create hot
spot questions
in your survey

Download Hot Spot guide

(mobile friendly: Hot Spot guide)

Detailed Hot Spot guide
Heat map questions How to create heat
maps in your survey

Download Heat Map guide

(mobile friendly: Heat map guide)

Detailed Heat Map guide
Timing questions How to record click
times and submission
times in your survey

Download Timing guide 

(mobile friendly: timing questions)

Detailed Timing guide
Randomisation How to randomise
answer choices,
questions, and blocks

Download Randomisation guide

(mobile-friendly: Randomisation guide)

Detailed Randomisation guide
Importing survey data to SPSS How to get your data
from Qualtrics to SPSS

Download Importing to SPSS guide

(mobile-friendly: importing to SPSS guide)

Guide for supervisors Collaborating
with students and
approving studies

Download guide for supervisors

(mobile friendly: guide for supervisors)

If you have questions or need additional guidance, please don’t hesitate to get in touch!

View the Psychology Research Privacy Policy

(Download accessible version of the Psychology Research Privacy Policy)


Qualtrics is an easy to use web-based survey tool to conduct survey research and other data collection research. It can be used for simple Likert type responses as well as free text questions, what’s more it has the ability to ask more complex questions, do all sorts of randomisation and present a wide range of stimuli such as images and videos.  Qualtrics is easy to use to build surveys, distribute surveys and analyse responses – all from any online location, any time you need!

Psychology students recruiting participants online must use Qualtrics when they reach their final year.

Level 4 and Level 5 psychology students must complete 2 online studies and earn at least 10 Research Points from taking part in face to face studies per year before they can use Qualtrics or SONA for their dissertation in Level 6. This gives students really valuable experience of participating in studies, and enables dissertation students reach ambitious  recruitment targets. Dissertation students  award 1 Research Point for every online survey participants complete. Members of the public can also participate.

For… dissertation students new to Qualtrics who want to create a survey and recruit

You will gain access to your Qualtrics account when you attend one of the dissertation workshops for online recruitment. Look out for an e-mail about these workshops in the first semester. Your study won’t go live until you request approval from your supervisor, so please feel free to experiment as soon as you have your account. Qualtrics is easy to use, and you can put your study up yourself with no help if you’d prefer. Guidance will appear here in due course.

Log in to Qualtrics.

For… Level 4,5 and 6 psychology students who want to participate

You can start participating in online studies at any time. You must earn 10 Research Points per year from participating in face to face studies.  2 of these must be from online surveys; you receive 1 Research Point for every survey you complete. All psychology students are strongly encouraged to take part in as many studies as they can, as they will be helping dissertation students and gaining insight that will definitely help when it comes to dissertation time and thinking about a career! A prize for the Level 4 and Level 5 student participating in the most studies will be awarded at the next BUDS conference.

See available studies

If you’re having trouble loading the page above, please remember to disable any ad-blockers you may have installed. 

For… Anybody else who wants to participate in psychology studies: 

Anybody can participate in studies, not just students. You can participate by clicking on the link provided with each study. If you find a study interesting, feel free to share it on social media or send it to friends to help the researchers reach their recruitment numbers.

See available studies.

If you’re having trouble loading the page above, please remember to disable ad-blocker. 


Read the Psychology Research Privacy Policy

(Download accessible version of the Psychology Research Privacy Policy)

More guidance on online recruitment.

Got questions? Contact a psychology technician!

Story Completion


Story completion is a method used or qualitative research, wherein participants express their views on a topic by completing a story normally started by the researcher. This post will give you an overview of the method, including some tips and practicalities to think about when designing a research study that uses story completion.

Example of a story completion form for a participant. The beginning of the story is written in two lines at the top of the form and the participant can finish the story in the space below.
Continue reading Story Completion

Looking for a source of free images?

Most of the images you find on the web will have some sort of copyright or ownership rights that will prevent you using them in lectures, posters or as dissertation stimuli for example. There are a number of free sources of images, and here they are! If you find any more please let Joe the psychology technician know. and  are searchable sources for free images.

You can also use to search Flickr for images that are licensed for reuse. It allows you to filter by commericial/non-commercial reuse so it is very helpful.

You can also try:

More guidance for University of Brighton students using images





Research Grade eye tracking and psychophysiology equipment

The lab is home to a range of eye tracking and psychophysiology monitoring kit that can be used by staff and dissertation students.

As part of the strategic research development of the School of Applied Social Science, the lab is very interested in making innovative partnerships with other Schools in the University of Brighton using the cutting edge research grade equipment equipment outlined below.

Read more about the eye-tracking and psychophysiology equipment.

Here is more information on the specific equipment:

Mobile eye tracker (SMI RED250 mobile) This is a screen-based  laptop sized eye tracker capable of measuring eye movements, fixation duration and pupilometry.
Eye tracking glasses (SMI ETG) This is a wearable and totally mobile eye tracker capable of measuring the scene viewed by the participant, the participant’s gaze within the scene and the audio present at the time.
Psychophysiology monitoring equipment (BioPac MP160 with BioNomadix wireless recorders)  This allows static measurement of blood pressure and response monitoring, and wireless monitoring of EEG, ECG, EMG, Pulse Rate and EDA (see presentation above for more info.

If you are a researcher from another School in the University of Brighton and would like to explore using the equipment in a partnership please note that any  partnership must meet the following criteria:

  • Professional level research;
  • Not speculative;
  • Pilot project, with the aim to lead to a research grant application;
  • Health related proposals are particularly welcome.

External partners will be allocated a member of SASS research staff who will work with the external partner to take the work forwards. Please note that the equipment, lab and psychology technician are provided primarily for psychology students and staff, and that equipment and support can only be accessed between May and November (when the lab is not being used for dissertation data collection).

Please speak to Joe the psychology technician if you want to explore using this equipment.

Dissertation support

See below for a 30 minute virtual lab tour showcasing the support, spaces and equipment we can offer those embarking on their dissertations.


Download the slides here.


Want to know more?

2 page guide – support QUALitative dissertations

(accessible guide for qualitative dissertations)

2 page guide – support for QUANTitative dissertations

(accessible guide for quantitative dissertations)

We’re very happy to chat about specific issues, the earlier the better in your thinking! Please contact a psychology technician today!

Free measures for dissertations

This page contains information on a range of measures (psychometric tests) freely available to psychology students, and the formats in which they are available. Please note this is a guide only and is not intended to be a definitive list. You are strongly  encouraged to read the academic papers that accompany the tests and read around these to make sure the test is right for your purposes.

Your choice of measure should be discussed with your supervisor. Your supervisor must approve the measures you intend to use before you use them to collect data. If the questionnaire you need is accessible only by contacting the author, you must check with your supervisor before doing so.  At the end of the page are links to other databases that contain many more measures if you can’t find what you are looking for here.

Links will take you direct to online resources. Please remember to reference these correctly if you use them. If you need advice, get in touch with your supervisor or contact the psychology technicians.

Where tests are marked with an asterisk (*) these are paper copies subject to copyright and held in the psychology lab store – if you would like to use any of these you will need to get approval from your supervisor.

If you would like to use a published test not on this list, or would like to add a test to the list, please contact a psychology technician.

Topic Scale Background information
Activism Orientation Scale Activism Orientation Scale background info 
Clinical Anger Scale  Clinical Anger Scale background info
Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – copy available from the Psychology Lab. Spielberg Anxiety Inventory background info 
Attitudes towards self
Attitudes Towards Self Questionnaire  Attitudes Towards Self Questionnaire background info
Attraction tactics
Male Attraction Tactics Questionnaire  Male Attraction Tactics background info
Belief in good luck
Belief in Good Luck Questionnaire (see pages 494 – 495 for questionnaire items) Belief in Good Luck Questionnaire background info
Need to Belong Scale Need to Belong Scale background info
Big 5 personality traits
Big Five Inventory (see page 3 for questionnaire items) Big Five Inventory background info 
Body Anxiety
Social Physique Anxiety Scale Social Physique Anxiety Scale background info
Body Attitudes (men)
Male Body Attitudes Scale  (click ‘Download PDF’ and see page 164 for questionnaire items). Male Body Attitudes Scale background info
Body Awareness
Body Awareness Questionnaire (click ‘PDF Full Text’ and see page 805 for questionnaire items) Body Awareness Questionnaire background info
Body Esteem
Body Esteem Questionnaire (men and women) – the scale is freely available but you will need to e-mail the authors. Please check with your supervisor before doing so. Body Esteem Questionnaire background info
Body Shape
Body Shape Questionnaire (men and women) Body Shape Questionnaire background info
Coping Style
Coping Style Questionnaire for Social Situations Coping Style Questionnaire background info
Curiosity and Exploration Styles Inventory Curiosity and Exploration background info
University Students Depression Inventory (click ‘Download PDF’ and see page 164 for questionnaire items). University Students Depression Inventory background info
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress
Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale
Short version (DASS 21)
Long version (DASS 42)
DASS 21 background info
DASS 42 background info
Dieting Beliefs Scale (click ‘PDF Full Text’ and see page 195 for questionnaire items) Dieting Beliefs Scale background info
Tolerance of Disagreement Scale  Tolerance of Disagreement Scale background info
Eating Attitudes Test  Eating Attitudes Test background info
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence Scale (see page 172 for the questionnaire items) Emotional Intelligence Scale background info
Emotional intensity
Affect Intensity Measure 20 items
Affect Intensity Measure 40 items
Affect Intensity Measure background info
Toronto Empathy Questionnaire Empathy Questionnaire background info
ALPHA Measure for Environmental Perceptions Measure for Environmental Perceptions background info
Environmental Attitudes (see page 20 for the questionnaire items) Environmental attitudes background info
Ethical Position
Ethics Position Questionnaire Ethics Position Questionnaire background info
Facebook Use
Facebook Use Intensity Scale  Facebook Use Intensity Scale background info
Family Distress
Brief Family Distress Scale  Family Distress Scale
Family Life
Satisfaction with Family Life Scale (see Table 1 for questionnaire items) Satisfaction with family life scale background info
Fear of being found out
Imposterism Scale  Imposterism Scale background info
Flourishing Scale  Flourishing Scale background info
Friendship Questionnaire (see Appendix for questionnaire items) Friendship Questionnaire background info
Costs and Benefits of Friendship Questionnaire  Costs and benefits of friendships background info
McGill Friendship Questionnaire – Respondent’s Affection McGill Friendship Questionnaire background info
Future Consequences
Consideration of Future Consequences Scale Consideration for Future Consequences background info 
Food Preoccupation
Food Preoccupation Questionnaire  Food Preoccupation Questionnaire background information
Gratitude Questionnaire  Gratitude Questionnaire background info
Subjective Happiness Scale (see Appendix for the scale items) Subjective Happiness Scale background info
Homophobia Scale Homophobia Scale background info 
Aspects of Identity Questionnaire  Aspects of Identity Questionnaire background info 
Jealousy (infidelity)
Jealousy Instrument  Jealousy Instrument background info
Job Satisfaction
Work Locus of Control Scale (see Appendix for the questionnaire items) Work Locus of Control Scale background info
LGBT Human Rights Support
Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale  Support for LG Human Rights Scale background info 
LGBT identity
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale  LGB Identity Scale background info
Reysen Likability Scale  Reysen Likability Scale background info
Love and Breaking up
Love Schemas Scale  Love Schemas Scale background info
Love attitudes
Love Attitudes Scale: Short form Love Attitudes Scale background info
Meaning of Life
Meaning of Life Questionnaire  Meaning of Life Questionnaire background info
Brief Mood Introspection Scale  Brief Mood Introspection Scale background info
Music Preferences
Short Test of Music Preference  Test of Music preference background info
Connectedness to Nature Scale (see Appendix on page 513 for the questionnaire items) Connectedness to Nature background info
Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale background info
Life Orientation Test – Revised Life Orientation Test background info 
See this journal article assessing 7 measures to assess pain
Panic Attacks
Panic Attack Questionnaire Panic Attack Questionnaire background info 
Passionate Love
Passionate Love Scale  Passionate Love Scale background info
Personal Development
Personal Growth Initiative Scale Personal Growth Initiative Scale background info
Physical Activity and Sport Anxiety
Physical Activity and Sport Anxiety Scale Physical Activity and Sport Anxiety background info
Pregnancy Experience
Pregnancy Experience Scale  Pregnancy Experience Scale background info
Trauma Screening Questionnaire (see Appendix for questionnaire items) Trauma Screening Questionnaire background info
Purpose in Life
Life Engagement Test Life Engagement Test background info
Quality of Life
Global Quality of Life Scale Global Quality of Life Scale background info
Overview of 34 measures to assess racism
Friendship and Relationship Quotient Questionnaire Friendship and Relationship Quotient Questionnaire background info 
Religious Commitment
Religious Commitment Inventory  Religious Commitment Inventory background info
Repetitive Thinking
Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire background info
Rorschach Inkblot Test
The lab has an original copy of the Rorschach Inkblot test and interpretation manual. Contact the technicians for more info. 
Satisfaction with Life
Satisfaction with Life Scale (see Table 1 for questionnaire items) Satisfaction with Life Scale background info 
Self Consciousness Scale Revised  Self Consciousness Scale background info
Attitudes to Self Questionnaire Attitudes to Self Questionnaire background info
Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale background info
Collective Self-Esteem Scale Collective Self-Esteem Scale background info
Negative Self-Portrayal Scale Negative Self-Portrayal scale background info
Separation Anxiety
Adult Separation Anxiety Tool Adult Separation Anxiety Tool background info
Sexual Attitudes
Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale background info
Sexual Desire
Sexual Desire Inventory Sexual Desire Inventory background info
Sexual Likes and Dislikes
Sexual Self-Disclosure Questionnaire  Sexual Self-Disclosure Questionnaire background info
Shyness Scale  Shyness Scale background info
Sleep-related worry
Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire background info
Social Anxiety
Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults  Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults background info
Social Phobia
Social Phobia Inventory Social Phobia Inventory background info
Social Phobia and Anxiety
Printed copies of MHS Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and the manual are available from the Psychology Lab. Contact the technicians for more info. 
Social Support
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (see Table 1 on page 35 for questionnaire items) Perceived social support scale background info
Social Support
Social Support Inventory (see table 9 on page 408 for questionnaire items.) Social Support Inventory background info
Spiritual Connections
Spiritual Connection Questionnaire Spiritual Connection Questionnaire background info
Sport Emotion Questionnaire Sport Emotion Questionnaire background info
Perceived Stress Scale Perceived Stress Scale background info
Stress and PTSD
Impact of Events Scale  Impact of events Scale background info
Systematising Quotient (scroll down on the linked webpage to find this scale) Systematising Quotient background info
Perception of Teasing Scale (see appendix for scale items) Perception of Teasing Scale background info
Temptations to Drink
Temptations to Drink Instrument Temptations to Drink Instrument background info


Attitudes Towards Dating Violence Questionnaire Attitudes Towards Dating Violence background info
Penn State Worry Questionnaire Penn State Worry Questionnaire background info
Other databases of measures:

If you can’t find what you’re looking for in the list above, these websites also contain a wealth of free, validated measures:

Looking to do a perception or cognition experiment? The lab can offer software PsyCog, which contains a number of freely available, ready built psychology experiments and demonstrations including:

  • Vision: visual angle, colour perception, brightness and contrast, motion, depth, size, fading;
  • Hearing: pitch, localisation;
  • Language: categorical perception, Stroop effect (we also have a version of the Stroop task which you customise to the needs of your study)
  • Attention: visual search, change blindness, interference
  • Learning and memory: iconic memory, scanning of short term memory, implicit learning, eye-witness testimony
  • Cognition: mental rotation

Got something more specific in mind? You can built an entire experiment from scratch with our SuperLab software and we’d be more than happy to help. Get in touch to find out more.

If you find any of the measures on these or other sites useful please let a psychology technician know, so they can add them to the list.





Lab equipment

The lab offers a range of equipment for use by psychology dissertation students and staff and creative methods equipment, as well as information on how to use it.

We are very interested in exploring research partnerships with other Schools in the University using some of our research-grade eye tracking and psychophysiology monitoring equipment.

The Transforming Sexuality and Gender Research Cluster has paid for a range of creative methods equipment that is also located in the psychology lab. This is for priority use by the cluster.

To book equipment, please contact  the psychology technicians with the details of the resources you will need, and when you will need them. Please try and book equipment at least 4 working days in advance. Please also say whether you would like to pick them up from the lab, or whether you would like them set up somewhere else.  We’ll confirm that everything is available and can be collected/delivered on the dates required.  If you wish to cancel a booking please let us know as soon as you do.  Equipment will be loaned on a first come first served basis and is subject to availability.

If you would like any help deciding on the best resource for your purposes, or would like to propose other resources that would be useful, we would be happy to discuss this with you in more detail.


The psychology lab has created an implementation of the online program, Cyberball. Further information about how to use and reference Cyberball can be found in the User Manual for Cyberball 4. The program can be accessed at the following link: . Please note that you will need to customise the URL to make it function in the way you desire – the psychology technicians can help you if you are unsure.