Surrogacy: Can our babies born outside the UK become British?

 I am critically analysing a blog I read called “Immigration and nationality law following surrogacy agreements” that was posted by Nath Gbikpi on the 11th of October 2017 on the Free Movement law blog. The topic combines immigration, nationality and family law all together. The purpose of the blog is to give background to the law, factors to consider and where to find Home Office guidance about cases involving surrogacy.

The blog looked at surrogacy, which in a simplistic form is where a woman carries and delivers a baby for another couple or person. The Surrogacy Agreements Act 1985, under section 2(1) states that it is a criminal offence for a person on a commercial basis to initiate or take part in a surrogacy agreement in the UK. Due to this, most individuals or couples who want to take part in surrogacy opt for doing it outside the UK in countries like the USA and Ukraine. Would this mean that our babies born through surrogacy be British? Sadly, even if the parents are both British the answer is no.

This is due to the definition of “mother” and “father” by British nationality law. The babies are still subject to immigration law because they were born outside the UK and need a visa or to acquire the British nationality to be able to come into the UK. We therefore need to look as to what constitutes a mother or father under the British nationality law. Section 50(9) of the British Nationality Act 1981 states that: ‘for the purpose of this Act a child’s mother is the woman who gives birth to the child.’ and a father is ‘the husband at the time of the child’s birth of the woman who gives birth to the child.’   

Once it is defined who the mother and father is, what needs to be looked into is if that child could be born British. Then there are options that can cover legally what options there are there for the baby. One of them is a parental order. Parental orders, under section 1(5) of the British Nationality Act a child who is subject of a parental order made in UK court becomes British from the date of the order. Another option is to register the child as a British citizen, or a visa.

The blog was very well written, it had a clear structure that transitioned nicely the purpose of the blog was very clear since the beginning, it was clear step by step how the topic was developing. It had different sub sections and bullet points and case study examples helped to understand the statutes and the law that was given. It was easy to understand the law whilst reading the blog, it did not over complicate it with big legal words or commentary. The style was effective, paragraphs were short and always engaging. It treated the topic with sensitivity, and saw both ends of the spectrum. The blog  would appeal to a huge modern audience of in individuals and couples seeking to become parents through surrogacy and will explain clearly the law to them that would be helpful towards their goal of achieving a family.


Gbikpi, N. (2017). Immigration and nationality law following surrogacy agreements – Free Movement. [online] Free Movement. Available at: [Accessed 24 Oct. 2017]. (2017). CRITICAL ANALYSIS. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Oct. 2017].

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *