Research into photography magazine and how they combine text and images. I plan on using Japanese stab binding for my final outcome which makes this magazine an especially useful piece of research as it is also Japanese stab bound so their spread designs are accommodating of this factor, for example they have avoided placing an text next to the spine so that none of the text becomes lost within it.
Single sheet binding has been used yet they have also used full bleed images across the spine of the book, meaning that some of the images becomes lost. They have also used tipped in pages, which I am considering using as they can easily be included within a single sheet bound book.
Inspired by previous research into semiotics, I decided to further my investigation into the study of proxemics. I chose proxemics as it is something I had heard of before and not many designers have explored the topic, therefore it would be a challenge explaining a topic that many people have not heard of in a new creative way.
Below is a body of research I have done into the various ways in which designers have approached the language of body language. With each image I have analysed the work that has been created and noted what direction I believe my project could take if inspiration by that image.
I created a mood board consisting of images I found online documenting elemental forces and the affect they have on natural environments and man made objects. The photographs include imagery of eroded natural forms due to wind and water, as well as rusted and aged metals. From these images I am particularly intrigued by the effects of elemental forces on man made objects. The combination of natural and man made results in unpredictable results and creates an interesting juxtaposition, for example in the top middle image the typography on the metal plate has been warped in unpredictable ways by nature.
I have collected work by a variety of artists which I feel embody the weathered aesthetic or embrace the weathering process. The two images on the far left are posters that have been pasted on top of one another and then ripped through, meaning parts of the posters beneath are visible, this creates unpredictable designs that blend both of the posters together. Other images I have included feature typography distorted through water, weathered prints, and broken typography, all embodying an aged or distorted aesthetic.
From these pieces of work I am particularly intrigued by the use of print. I enjoy using print as a technique for producing imagery as it can be unpredictable and allows for experimentation. Using a printing technique such as monoprinting would suit my work as it allows for textural and unpredictable imagery.
Grid systems establish a set of guidelines for how elements should be positioned within a layout, this creates rhythm and defines the meter. Rhythm and meter are important as they allow the viewer to understand where the next piece of information lies within the layout, making the design accessible. It sets expectations and defines the rules. Breaking the grid is also important as it can be used to highlight specific areas of content. The viewer can identify where the grid has been broken and will naturally be drawn to those areas, this gives the design the opportunity to play with hierarchy of layout or change the meaning of the piece. A key aspect of the grid is to help define and determine proportion. In print proportions normally reflect the reflect the size, shape and orientation of the media. Reflection is not as important on the web and can be more fluid but grids can still be used to anchor content to the screen.
Margins and Columns
- Margins and columns define the type area. The area within which most of the text and images will be contained. I have the department head, the folios and this image, all of which go outside of the type area. In the example below the department head, the folios and the bottom left image all go outside of the type area.
- The layout grid below was created using the Create Guides feature. The layout grid divides the type area into eight rows and 12 columns. By subdividing the page in this way, there is far more flexibility over how the image and text frames are sized which can create far more dynamic layouts.
- Separating the rows and columns are gutters. The size of the gutters correlates with the size of the body text leading.
- The intersection of the rows and columns creates grid fields. The more grid fields there are the more flexibility however they can also create more visual clutter.
- When you place an element according to the grid field, generally speaking, it will be placed in the top left hand corner of the grid field. A notable exception is when a caption is put above an image, in which case it would be placed to the bottom of the grid field, as opposed to the top.
- The baseline grid can be turned on with the keyboard shortcut. Cmd+Opt+’, it can also be turned on in your view options, or using the view menu and the baseline grid increment will correlate with the body text leading which in turn correlates with the gutter spacing.
- To turn on the document grid, Cmd or Ctrl+’. The document grid will divide the page and your paste board into graph paper. The size of each of the grid squares and how many subdivisions they have can be determined in the preferences.
Golden section – Grid based on the golden ratio that has been used in Western art and architecture for more than 2000 years.
Single column grid – You can set your page dimensions and margin widths before creating your document (designing outside in) or you can create a document with no margins and place guidelines and guidelines onto the document (designing inside out). This allows you to experiment with margins and columns before committing.
Multicolumn grid – Flexible formats can be created for publications with complex hierarchies or that contain both text and images. The more columns the more flexible your grid becomes. The grid can be used to determine hierarchy in the publication and text or images can fill one column or span several. Hang lines can also be added, this is where vertical zones are added within the columns. For example, an area at the top can be reserved for images and captions and the body text can “hang” from a common line.
Modular grid – There are consistent horizontal divisions from top to bottom as well as vertical divisions from left to right. This dictates the placement and cropping of pictures as well as text.
Baseline grid – Horizontal guidelines are created in relation to a baseline grid which anchors all layout elements to a common rhythm. Choose the type size and leading of your text then create a baseline grid, use the line space increment to set the baseline grid in your document preferences.
Adjust the top or bottom page margin to absorb any space left over by the baseline grid. Determine the number of horizontal divisions, count how many lines fit into a full column of text and then choose a number that divides into the line count to create horizontal page divisions. If your line count is not neatly divisible, adjust the top and/or bottom page margins to absorb the leftover lines.
To style headlines, captions and other page elements, choose line spacing that works with the baseline grid. Where possible position all page elements in relation to the baseline grid, although some page layouts look better when you break the grid.
Below are three more influential collage artists that I found whilst collecting research for my vertical project on memory. The artists all have a surrealist element to their work and many are directly influenced by the work of the surrealist movement. I have analyses these artists and used their work as inspired for my own collage work, however mine will be applied to an animation instead of simply a print.
“I enjoy creating ‘scenes’ that could only exist in another time or dimension but still somehow seem familiar. I’m always challenging myself to do something new and unique. The improvisational and often freeform nature of physical collage is something I’ll never get tired of.”
San Diego-based collage artist and graphic designer Andrew McGranaham creates surreal, psychedelic collages inspired by ancient history, science fictions and surrealism. His imagery comes from vintage magazines and books, such as OMNI, LIFE Nature library and National Geographic. His work is far more graphic than that of the other two artists, as seen from the block colours and linear and geometric shapes.
Influence by pop art, dada, and traditional surrealism Eugenia Loli uses photography from scanned vintage magazines and science publications to construct her collaged visual narratives. Her work is most closely related to the aesthetic I aim to achieve in my animation, she takes collaged elements and juxtaposes them into vastly different environments to their initial context, creating surreal and odd scenes.
The Montana based artist uses collage to create fictional environments from places of existence, this is to highlight the way in which humans have transformed the earth. She transplants the influence of humanity onto collaged images of untouched landscapes from vintage magazines. Her work is cleverly done as she seamlessly blends together collaged elements to create humorous surreal scenes. This level of sophistication when combining collaged elements together is extremely difficult and something I strive to achieve with my own work.
To help develop my creative process I have decided to make a checklist which I can follow and edit when working on a brief. This checklist will help to speed up my creative process as I will have a clear plan to follow, it will also help to ensure that I don’t miss or spend too little or too much time on certain activities, therefore compromising my project.
- Analyse the brief
- Identify what is required from the project
- Mind map initial ideas
- Identify initial subject matter
- Brainstorm ideas/feelings/emotions/etc. associated with that subject matter which I can use to inform my work (for example if my subject matter was dreaming my work could have an ethereal and confusing feeling)
Primary and Secondary Research
- Research any references suggested on the brief
- Research any requirements of the brief that I am unfamiliar with
- Research my subject matter
- Research how other designers have approached that subject matter
- Research formats
- Primary research about methods, imagery, formats, production, etc.
- Browse my collection of work saved on Pinterest and Tumblr for inspiration
- Develop my initial ideas based on my findings from my primary and secondary research
- Roughly design my final solution
- Identify and plan for any potential issues that may occur during the production of the final solution
Production, Refinement and Final Solution
- Design my final idea
- Using appropriate traditional or digital techniques produce my final outcomes
- Mount/photograph/present my final outcome if appropriate
- Present my final solution during a group critique to receive feedback from the tutors and my peers
Post critique amendments
- Make appropriate changes based on feedback given during the critique