Today consisted of using various different methods to estimate river water discharge. The group was split into two after Ray Ward had given the morning lecture. One set of students with Ray and another with myself (Rob).
Ray’s group were using 3 different methods which included, the velocity float method using our specially calibrated flotation devices (oranges from the local market), velocity measurement devices, and salt dilution method.
My group were using the slope area method to calculate discharge, which involved using surveying gear to measure the cross sectional area and slope as well as characterizing the sediment.
Luckily the weather was kind to us today, though not warm, the rain was kept at bay until the very end when we were packing up. Only a few oranges were KIA and no wellington boots were lost down the river and despite my poor student counting skills no one was left behind…
Today one of our groups went to four sites along the Sicilian coastline to assess whether these sites were suitable for the award of a Blue Flag. We were lucky to see some beautiful sunshine on the coast, but the sea was the roughest it’s been in recent years. This made conditions challenging for water quality sampling.
Sampling at the first site took place on the wave-cut platform beneath the Norman Castle of Aci Castello. Waves were sweeping across the platform, so sampling was conducted in the pools that were readily filled by each approaching wave. All samples were collected successfully but the odd large wave did leave some with wet feet!
Next stop was the scenic fishing village of Santa Maria la Scala, a short walk down to the beach was rewarded with an icecream and by some interesting sanitary surveys of an area suffering from waste from a variety of different sources (slabs of marble being one of the more difficult to explain).
The third stop took us to the expanse of beach at Fondachello, where samples were taken from the mouth of the Fiumefreddo River.
And finally our last stop was Giardini Naxos with its more established tourist areas. Here we stopped for a spot of lunch and carried out membrane filtration to determine the quantity of faecal indicator bacteria in samples from each site.
The results of this testing will follow in the next 48 hrs where the sanitary quality of each site will become clearer. Watch this space …
Guest author: Dr Sarah Purnell
After our stirring morning lecture we had a lunch stop, scoffing down arancini and very nice coffee, fueling up for the afternoons activities! The first stop for the afternoon took us further up Etna and into the snow line. This as you can imagine, led to numerous snow balls being lobbed between students (and staff…). We climbed, with some difficulty, to a much earlier lava flow, immersed in the mist. Due to this we decided to climb higher and maybe out of the clouds.
This plan turned out to be very fruitful as we emerged out of the fog and into beautiful sunshine and amazing views! Mumma Etna put on quite a show with various cones scattered around the landscape. We arrived at 1992 metres above sea level, with extensive snow cover. At this altitude we were able to view the majesty of the mountain and climbed down into a crater for further discussion and group photos.
The weather was definitely in two halves today, misty and somewhat miserable in the morning to glorious sunshine in the afternoon with breath-taking views. It is truly a treat to hear our highly knowledgeable guide for the day inform us of the dynamics of the second most active volcano on the planet! Now it is time to descend and tuck into some lovely Sicilian food and maybe a beer or two.
Today we made our first visit to the second most active volcano on the planet, Etna.
We met our group leader, Boris Bencke, and then ventured to our first site: a 1992 lava flow.
Boris talked to us about marvels of mumma Etna and how its behaviour has been changing as of late to more eruptive and pyroclastic. The importance of providing education to the population of Sicily is paramount to ensure the safety of the surrounding citizens. Predicting when mumma Etna feels as though Sicily “needs a slap” as Sicilian mothers often do, is still very difficult, often with little warning.
The weather may have been miserable but the lecture from Boris was inspiring and informative. The mist cleared a little to reveal the long flow of lava which had engulfed houses and very nearly destroyed a whole village.
Hope everyone is packing away in anticipation for the trip tomorrow! The weather forecast suggested it will be varied, so make sure you pack a good mixture of clothing. Layers is the key to keeping warm and are also easy to put on and take off when you’re trekking up and down Etna! Don’t forget that for the river day you’ll need some form of protective footwear for getting into the river.
Look out for a diary of our trip on here.