Referencing in SASS

The School of Applied Social Science has a referencing policy and you must follow the referencing system set out here in all your assessed work.

Referencing is essential to show that you have researched your material, that the ideas that you present have been considered in the light of documented material on the subject, to differentiate between your own opinions and the views of those who have greater knowledge and wider experience of the given subject.  References are necessary to substantiate the knowledge, theories and discussions that you present in your papers.


You may refer to literature in order to:

•          Give factual information

•          Illustrate a point

•          Present a theoretical perspective

•          Present an argument or counter argument

•          Support an argument or a counter argument of your own


References are necessary to acknowledge the source of your information, ideas and arguments. The reader should be able, from your reference list, quickly to follow up your source of information. References need to be cited in two places – once in abbreviated form when you refer to the document in the text, and then in full at the end of the work.


A reference is a description of a published work that you have referred to either directly or indirectly in your text.


A reference list at the end of your work lists all sources, for example, books, reports and articles, which have been used in the production of your work.


There are two common ways of linking abbreviated references in the text to a full description of the published work – either numeric (i.e. a number in the text which is linked either to a footnote or to a numbered list at the end of the paper) or author/date (also known as the Harvard or parenthetical system) where the briefest author/date information appears in parentheses (brackets) in the text and the full description in an alphabetical list at the end of the paper.  The Harvard method is in use in the School of Applied Social Science and must be used at all times.  The particular interpretation or convention of the Harvard method used in the School of Applied Social Science is the Chicago Manual of Style. 


If you look on the library shelves at guides to writing theses, student papers etc., you will find a bewildering array of style conventions (British Standard, APA, MLA etc.). The School of Applied Social Science recommends the use of the Chicago Manual of Style: books and online guides that use this convention are listed at the end of this guide. In the examples that follow, the punctuation and italicisation follows the Chicago style: you should also follow this style, but if you cannot produce italic text, underlining may be substituted.


Under no circumstances should another writer’s material or ideas be presented without acknowledging the source – if you do so it is plagiarism and your work will be penalised. See section 17 of your course handbook.

In the body of the text the surname of the author(s) is given followed by the year of publication, all in brackets. Wherever possible you should provide the page numbers as well. If the author’s name appears naturally in your text, only cite the date and page numbers in brackets.



a        One author

The Thatcherite bias against the more environmentally benign option of public transport reinforced the institutionalised position of the road lobby (Dudley 1983, 101–3).

In one study (Coser 1963, 101–3) it was found that…

Jones (1994, 101–3) has argued forcefully that…

“Rheumatoid arthritis holds a unique position among the connective tissue diseases” (Hughes 1977, 24).


b       Two authors of one work

Visual deprivation has been found to increase postural sway (Brown and Dickinson 1972, 101–3).

In the course of this discussion, Cohen and Abrahams (1985, 101–3) commented that the prison system had nothing to do with turning offenders into honest citizens.


c        Authors of two different works

Note: The references in brackets are in alphabetical order.

Deregulation of bus services and cuts in subsidy to road and rail were accompanied by large increases in road traffic (Dudley 1983, 2; Hamer 1987, 18)


d       More than three authors of one work

In contrast to the present study Panzer et al. (1995, 21) found that lateral sway did not increase with eyes closed.


e       An author with more than one cited publication in the same year

Distinguish these by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year and within the brackets:

Anthony (1989a, 2) proposed that…

It has been argued by Anthony (1989b,16) that…

Whenever possible, quote from the original source. When this is not possible (e.g. when the original is unpublished, or for some other reason is not readily available) use the term ‘cited by’ followed by the reference for the work in which it is quoted.


Evidence from test results by Johnson and Appleby is cited by Neale (1993, 22) to show that parental attitudes to children’s footwear changes.


When you refer to this in the reference list, it should be listed under Neale:


Neale, D. 1993. Neale’s Common Foot Disorders: diagnosis and management. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

At the very end of the essay or dissertation, references should be given in full in alphabetical order. Do not depend on the cover of a book for accurate bibliographical information. Use the information on the title page (for author, title, volume number if relevant, place of publication and publisher) and its reverse or ‘verso’ (for publication date and edition).


A book reference should contain:

1.      Author’s surname followed by initials (second and third authors are not inverted and if there are more than three authors, use first author plus ‘et al.’)

2.      Year of publication.

3.      Title of book in italics (or underlined if italics are not available).

4.      Edition of book if not the first.

5.      Volume number if there is more than one.

6.      Place of publication.

7.      Publisher’s name.


Examples (please note and follow the punctuation):


Andrews, A. 1975.  Greek society. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Brown, E.L. 1971.  Nursing reconsidered. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Harris, A. and M. Super. 1991 Cystic fibrosis: The facts. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marsh, D. and R.A.W Rhodes. 1989.  Policy networks in British government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Melzack, R. and P. Wall. 1988.  The challenge of pain. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.


When the author and publisher are the same, the name should be repeated e.g.

Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. 1953.  The work of nurses in hospital wards. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.


Where the book is an edited collection of material with no author listed on the title page, use the abbreviation ‘ed’ or ‘eds’ for editor(s) or ‘comp’ or comps’ for compiler:

Neale, D., ed. 1993.  Common foot disorders. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.


If, however, the reference is to a specific chapter then it must be put under the name of the author of the chapter:

Jones, G. 1993.  Nail conditions. In: Common foot disorders, edited by D. Neale. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.


A journal reference should contain:

1.      Author’s surname, followed by initials.

2.      Year of publication.

3.      Title of article.

4.      Title of journal, italicised (or underlined if italics are not available).

5.      Volume number.

6.      Issue number, in brackets.

7.      The number of the first and last pages on which the article appears.



Abdel-Al, H. 1974.  An approach to nursing education. Nursing Mirror 139 (4): 68-70.

Blackburn, T.A. 1985.  Rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Orthopaedic Clinics of North America. 16 (2): 241-267.

Chapman, C.N. 1975. The graduate in nursing.  Nursing Times 71: 615-617.

Newell, K.M., R.E.A. Emmerik and R.L.Sprague. 1993.  On postural stability and variability.  Gait and Posture 4: 225-230.

Reiner, R. 1992. Policing a post-modern society.  The Modern Law Review 55 (6): 761-781.


Popular weekly or monthly magazines often do not have volume numbers and should be cited by date only. Page numbers follow, separated from the date by a comma – but if the article jumps from one part of the magazine to another, page numbers may be omitted.



Arthur, Charles. 1995. Just pick up the phone and say aah.  New Scientist. 6 May 1995, 23.


Journals should be referred to by their full name, even if the journal title is very long.



Corporate Authors, Reports, etc.

Reports which are not the responsibility of one individual should be listed under the name of the body responsible for their publication.  They should not be listed under the name of the chairman of a committee, in spite of the fact that they are commonly referred to in this way.


Example: the ‘Platt’ report:

Royal College of Nursing and National Council of Nurses of the United Kingdom.1964.  A reform of nursing education: first report of special committee on nurse education. [Platt report] London: Royal College of Nursing and National College of Nursing in the U.K.


Note that with lengthy corporate authors such as the example above, the citation in the text may be abbreviated to something that agrees with the start of the name – e.g. (Royal College 1964) but not (Platt report 1964).


Miscellaneous Examples


Central Health Services Council. 1970.  Domiciliary, midwifery & maternity bed needs: Report of the Sub-Committee of the Standing Maternity & Midwifery Advisory Committee. [Chairman: Sir John Peel] London: HMSO.

Department of Health and Social Security and Welsh Office.1971. Better services for the mentally handicapped. Cmnd. 4683. London: HMSO.

Industrial Relations Act, 1971. London: HMSO.

Interdepartmental Working Party on the Recruitment & Training of Nurses. 1947.  Report of the working party on the recruitment and training of nurses. [Chairman: Sir Robert Wood] London: HMSO.

Scottish Home and Health Department. 1970.  Duties & training of nursing auxiliaries and nursing assistants. Edinburgh: Scottish Home & Health Department.


Sequence of References by the Same Author

These should be in date order within the alphabetical sequence with the oldest reference first:

Peters, R. 1935.  Corns I have known. London: Kluwer.

Peters, R. 1959.  Bunions on my toes. London: Elsevier Science.

Peters, R. 1985. Warts and all. New York: Mosby.


Referencing from Electronic Sources

There is no agreed method for citing electronic sources yet and the key text on the subject (Li and Crane 1996) does not cover the Chicago style.  But it is possible to adapt the conventions for print material to electronic sources. The following elements should be included if available:

Author’s name and initials (as for book or journal article)

Year of publication

Title of document cited

Type of medium (e.g. CD-ROM, online)

Location (URL, ftp address etc.)

Date accessed (essential for online documents which may change location but not necessary for ‘stable’ sources such as CD-ROM)


From CD-ROM Sources

To cite a full-text article from a CD-ROM, follow the style used for journal or magazine articles (see above) and add [CD-ROM], CD-ROM title used, version and date:


Arthur, Charles. 1995. Just pick up the phone and say aah.  New Scientist. 6 May 1995, 23. [CD-ROM] New Scientist, Winter 1997


From Email

Cite Author. Year. Subject line from email posting. [Email] Type of posting (personal, to group, memo) [date accessed]:


Jones, K. 1998.  Nurse education in Sussex. [Email] Personal email to J. Smith. [28 Feb 1998].


WWW Document

Cite Author. Year. Title of document. [Online] Place of publication: Publisher (if you can ascertain this). Available from: (i.e. location of document) [date accessed]:


Cross, P. and K. Towle. 1996.  A guide to citing Internet sources. [Online] Poole: Bournemouth University. Available from:

[10 May 1998]

Note: do not put in any extra punctuation after the URL which might be misread as a part of the address. For this reason, it is sensible to put the URL on a separate line.


Electronic Journal

To cite a full-text article from an Internet source, follow the style used for journal or magazine articles (see above) and add [Online] Location and date accessed:


Pulsford D. 1997. Therapeutic activities for people with dementia – what, why… and why  not?  Journal of Advanced Nursing. 26 (4): pp 704-709 [Online] JournalsOnline on BIDS. Available at:

[10 May 1998]


Li, X. and N.B. Crane. 1996. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information. 2nd ed. Medford, N.J: Information Today.


This is the most cited book on the subject but it does not cover the Chicago style. It does, however, include every type of electronic source you are likely to encounter and once you have grasped the principles of the Chicago style, you can adapt the examples given in the first half (APA style) of this book.


Turabian, K.L. 1996.  A manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Much more digestible than the Chicago Manual of Style on which all the examples are based. See in particular Chapter 8 on ‘Parenthetical references and reference lists’.


University of Chicago Press. 1993.  The Chicago manual of style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


The ‘bible’ of the Chicago style and over 900 pages long but you can get by on chapter 16 on author-date citations and reference lists. Unfortunately, it is weak on electronic sources.


Internet Sources

Cross, P. and K. Towle. 1996.  A guide to citing Internet sources. [Online] Poole: Bournemouth University. Available from:

[10 May 1998]


Uses Harvard method and something similar to Chicago for citations


Hunter College Writing Center. [1997]. The documented essay/research paper: Chicago Manual of Style documentation. [Online] New York: Hunter College. Available from:

[Accessed 9 May 1998]


Read section headed ‘Documentation two: author-date style’


Learning and Information Services. 1997.  Referencing electronic sources. [Online] London: South Bank University. Available from:

[11 May 1998]


Wide range of examples, though not in Chicago style.