Getting stuck in(to) the bog; Talking Wetlands and Culture in Cork – Dr Mary Gearey

Cork’s River Lee was in fine fettle as I walked along it at Pope’s Quay on the way to meet Dr Maureen O’ Connor at University College Cork’s School of English or Scoil an Bhéarla, to give it its Gaeilge (Irish) equivalent. A wet Spring meant water was in abundance, and the surrounding hills were the sparkling green of early Summer. Situated fifteen kilometres away from the coast, Cork city is shaped by its’ water networks. The central part of the city is an island surrounded by the river; and its’ nearby harbour is one of the largest natural inlets in the world, providing this Southern part of Ireland with transport and economic links with America and the rest of Europe. Cork’s Irish spelling Corcaigh means ‘marsh’ and the surrounding wetlands were the reason for my networking visit to meet Dr O’Connor, on a research trip generously funded by the University of Brighton’s Centre for Aquatic Environments.

Figure 1: The River Lee, Cork city, Ireland

Dr O’Connor contacted me after I had presented a paper at the International Association for the Study of Ethnography and Folklore in Santiago de Compostela Spain in April this year. I had talked about wetlands as spaces of remembrance, memory and celebration as part of my NERC funded WetlandLIFE project work (www.wetlandLIFE.com). A central aspect of my work is the contemporary cultural representations of wetlands within England, and how our understandings and appreciation of these amazing natural environments are shaped by literature, song-writing, media, television, and films as well as through how we talk about wetlands in schools, universities and other learning spaces. Dr O’Connor’s recent research has also focused on contemporary Irish cultural appreciations of the more-than-human in the Irish psyche. She has worked on a feminist reading of animals in eco-criticism (see figure 2) and now explores the representation of wetland bogs in literature, music and other art forms – hence her contacting me to discuss future work together.

 

Figure 2: Dr Maureen O’Connor’s 2010 monograph, the female and the species

Dr O’Connor’s work has explored the contradictions inherent to modern cultural depictions of Irish wetland spaces, which have often been viewed as worthless, bleak, useless and redundant. She has considered how much these bogs become symbolically the ‘bogeymen’ for the end of the recent Tiger Economy in Ireland. As these physical ecosystems filter air and water quality as part of their regulating and provisioning ecosystem services functions, she suggests so too do they metaphorically absorb the national ennui during times of economic downturn. Dr O’Connor argues that there is a connection between the ways that modern Ireland rejects bogs, viewing these spaces as financial sinks – in other words they make nothing, sell nothing, cannot be built on and so are worth nothing – and an attendant degradation in both the health of these wetland spaces and in the national psyche in terms of self-esteem.

Figure 3: Leahill Bog, County Cork, Ireland (photo credit: Patrick Crushell)

Our work connects over an interest in the ways in which counter cultural practices subvert the mainstream when we consider human and more-than-human relationships. The blanket and raised bogs of Ireland feature heavily in songs, folk-lore, fairy stories and fiction, often as ‘othering’ spaces of delinquency, retribution, magic and transmutation. This is true too of my research findings on the WetlandLIFE project, where sub-genres of fiction, poetry and nature writing, film-making, art performances and community activism reinvigorate our appreciation of wetlands spaces – and particularly often unloveable and hard to traverse bogs, moors, fens and heaths. These are magical spaces, in all senses of the word, and Dr O’Connor’s and my work seek to amplify the worth of these spaces through highlighting the playful and imaginative encounters that are taking place physically and figuratively within wetlands. We both feel that encouraging people to value wetland spaces can only serve to help protect them and enable people to value the natural world and themselves, and to disconnect from the ephemerality, and dark fiction, of economic peaks and troughs.

It wasn’t all chin stroking and welly wearing though. Later the next day, back on dry land, we watched the Munster finals of the Gaelic Football championships; Corcaigh (Cork) vs Ciarrai (Kerry). Much to the delight of my compatriots the ‘Kingdom’ (i.e. Kerry) won and compulsory celebrating was initiated. That night, back in the hotel, I dreamt of moonlight on a mountain tarn, deep in MacGillyCuddy’s Reeks, the night alive with lapwings and the gentle gurgle of a bogside stream…and awoke to a dripping shower and the prospect of an early morning flight.

Summer Fieldwork

Our PhD students will be busy over the next few months collecting data during their summer fieldwork campaigns.  You can read a little bit about the summer plans of one of our students, Conor Strong below.

Invasive species cause ecological or economic harm when introduced to new environments. To limit these effects, novel management and control techniques must be developed. My project is focused upon the application of small-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) to detect and monitor the invasive aquatic plant species Australian swamp stonecrop (Crassula helmsii) in wetlands.

My fieldwork this year will involve undertaking aerial surveys using a SenseFly eBee fixed-wing sUAS equipped with a multispectral sensor. These flights will be carried out on the Pevensey Levels in East Sussex, UK. The study location is a 4,300-hectare grazing marsh habitat that is both a protected Ramsar site and Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). C.helmsii is present within the extensive ditch networks that occur on the Levels, threatening the aquatic plant and invertebrate communities they support.

I will be undertaking sUAS surveys on a monthly basis over the summer as part of a temporal study investigating the optimum time of year to survey for C. helmsii. I will also be using sUAS to monitor the recovery rate of C. helmsii following mechanical treatment. After removal from ditches by the Environment Agency in November 2018, aerial imagery is being analysed to determine subsequent regrowth through estimation of percentage cover. In addition to utilising sUAS, my fieldwork this year will also involve carrying out ground surveys of aquatic plant communities within the ditches. The results of these surveys will help to both validate aerial imagery and investigate the effects of C. helmsii colonisation on native aquatic plant communities.

The fieldwork that is being undertaken over the summer will contribute towards my final thesis. In addition, it is anticipated that the outcomes will help to inform land owners and managers of the most effective management approach for invasive C. helmsii in wetland environments.

 

Spotlight On Our New Staff

Over the past few months we have had a number of new staff start at the university  and whom have become members of the Centre.  So to get to know them we asked them to tell us a little a bit about their background – you can read all about them below!

Dr Georgios Maniatis

I am Greek and was raised in Moshato, a south suburb of Athens close to the Piraeus harbour. I did my 5-year diploma in Environmental Engineering at the Technical University of Chania (Crete) and, after finishing, I moved quite north for my MSc in Freshwater Systems Science (University of Glasgow). PhD started in 2012 (University of Glasgow) and I gradually became the “smart-pebble guy”: my goal was to put micro-sensors in stones and measure the forces they experience in rivers. After finishing my PhD, I worked as Research Associate for the University of Glasgow and then as Senior Hydro-morphologist for the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. In November (2018), I joined the University of Brighton as Lecturer of Physical Geography taking the opportunity to continue my research on river sediment transport across scales. My primary focus is still on individual pebbles and how the sensors I develop lead to new insights regarding their motion.  In parallel, I work on reach-scale projects where I attempt to quantify the effects of river management interventions using advanced sensing techniques (a great excuse to play with drones). The newest problem I work on relates to river classification; I want to quantify the error in applied hydro-morphological scores using Deep Learning techniques.

Dr Laura Evenstar

I grew up loving visiting other countries and took every opportunity to work and travel abroad. After my undergraduate degree in Geology from the University of Leeds, I jumped at the chance to study for a PhD in the University of Aberdeen based on extensive fieldwork in South America. This lead me to one of the loves of my life, the Atacama Desert, the driest and highest desert in the world. My PhD involved deciphering whether the Andean mountain chain formed the Atacama Desert or the other way round and involved extensive study of the sedimentary geology and geomorphology of Northern Chile. After graduate in 2007, I stayed at the University of Aberdeen to research how ancient river systems and lakes interact with salt bodies looking at modern and ancient analogues in Cordillera de la Sal, Chile and Moab, Utah, U.S.A.  I then took a long career break to live in remote parts of Scotland and raise small children before returning to academia in 2012 as a post doctoral researcher in the University of Bristol. In Bristol, I worked with BHP, a mining company, to understand long term climate change and uplift in the Atacama Desert effected the formation of weathered deposits of copper. In 2015, I was awarded the Cabot Institute funding to work on geomorphology of Afghanistan looking at the drying up of mega lakes in the Helmand Region since the Pleistocene. In 2019, I moved to the University of Brighton and now work on a variety of research interests from lakes generated by mega landslides, Desert geomorphology, outburst floods, Martian geomorphology, uplift of large mountain belts and formation of volcanoes in places all over the world.

Dr Aggeliki Georgiopoulou

I grew up in Patras, in SW Greece, on the Gulf of Corinth, where earthquakes are a daily occurrence. As a very curious and inquisitive child, fascinated by nature and its forces it made sense that I studied Geology. Through Geology and Jacques Cousteau’s documentaries I discovered Oceanography and I went on to complete a MSc in Oceanography at the University of Southampton and the National Oceanography Centre (then SOC, now NOC). I decided Science was my calling so I also did a PhD in Marine Geology and specifically on underwater landslides and the movement of sediments in the deep sea. I did my first post-doc at the 3DLab of Cardiff University, working as part of CAPROCKS, a consortium with partners from the Hydrocarbon Industry, interested in the sealing capacity and safety of reservoir caprocks. Following that I moved to Dublin, where at first I was a Griffith Research Fellow and then a Lecturer in Sedimentology at University College Dublin. Since then, and continuing today at SET in Brighton, I have developed an extensive range of marine-focused projects, on different aspects of underwater landslides, their timing, their triggers, the factors that make underwater slopes unstable, the frequency, the magnitude and their tsunami generation potential. I also explore the offshore record glacial processes, such as the advance and retreat of the British Irish Ice Sheet. I like to collaborate with people across disciplines, such as deep sea ecologists, geophysicists, climatologists, etc, as the ocean is a complex system that requires cross-disciplinary collaboration. My research takes me on research vessels all over the world to most of the oceans; my study areas are in the North Atlantic (both margins and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge), the Mediterranean Sea, the SW Indian Ocean offshore South Africa and the SW Pacific Ocean, offshore New Zealand. My life goal is to visit and work in all the oceans!

“Innovations in Wastewater Management” Annual Symposium 15th May 2019

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Reflections on this year’s event by co-organiser Dr Mary Gearey

This year’s Centre for Aquatic Environments Annual Symposium, held on 15th May in the Huxley auditorium, was themed around ‘Innovations in wastewater’. Co-organiser and the evening’s host, Dr Ian Mayor-Smith, selected a prestigious panel of guest presenters to provide us with insights from experts from industry, research and consultancy within the wastewater field.

Often overlooked as a niche specialism, wastewater management is central to our ability to live within increasingly population dense urban spaces. As the UN has predicted that by 2050 almost 80% of the world’s population will be living in cities and peri-urban spaces, combined with an expanding population which requires us to do more with less water, the issue of how we deal with our wastewater in a sustainable and resource positive manner is central to debates around public health and wellbeing. Although the three presentations showcased at the event were technically orientated, each made clear the wider societal and environmental implications of innovating in wastewater management and governance.

The connecting strand across all three presenters’ work is that the title of our symposium is actually wrong. It should have been termed “Innovations in resourcewater”. All three detailed within their work the paradigm shift that has taken place over the last decade around moving from a position of viewing wastewater (the domestic household effluent, stormwater and industrial bi-product water all societies create which ends in sewer networks) as a problem to solve, to acknowledging it as a resource laden end product. The resources that this product offers after processing includes phosphorous and nitrogen for agricultural fertiliser and soil conditioner and other industrial processes; bio-gas and bio-solids for energy generation and the plastics industry; and, of course, potable water to be returned to the distribution network after further treatment.

Dr Jimenez outlining his “the hare, the horse and the elephant” conceptualisation of barriers to wastewater innovation

After a rousing welcome from our Centre Director, Professor Chris Joyce, our first speaker, Dr Jose Jimenez, from US consulting firm Brown and Caldwell, admitted that he found wastewater ‘sexy’. Disconcertingly there was a ripple of agreement across the auditorium. Dr Jimenez started with some complex ideas presented in a highly accessible way. His work reflected on how for most countries around the world the large concrete infrastructure of the newly dubbed ‘water resource and recovery facilities’ are already developed. Therefore a key facet of innovation is to make use of existing buildings, and increase the speed and scale of resourcewater throughput. Dr Jimenez used the analogy of ‘the hare, the horse and the elephant’ to outline how the use of computing algorithms and in-reactor digital sensors can improve efficiency in nitrate shunting and sludge granularisation (the fast paced ‘hare’ end of innovation) which will ultimately have subsequent benefits throughout of the site itself (the slow moving incalcitrant ‘elephant’). He argued that innovation will make use of ‘grey box’ approaches which enable rapid onsite user augmentation to traditional predetermined albeit isolated optimisation algorithms (‘black box’). Such augmentation of real time process control optimises conditions for optimum resource capture and reduction of resource wastage.

Dr Ana Soares presenting her analysis of the paradigm shift which has changed perceptions from “waste” to “resource” water

This concept of optimisation was also adopted by our second eminent speaker, Dr Ana Soares, Senior Lecturer in Bioengineering at Cranfield University, UK. Dr Soares provided us with a fascinating time-line to think around how political and financial global events have impacted on innovations in the industry. In particular we learnt how the emerging use of activated sludge processes in 2004 and 2005, which were replacing the extant and long standing technology of treatment filters which had dominated 70% of the wastewater treatment market, were halted by the financial crisis in 2008 which saw energy prices spiral, slowing the uptake of this innovative technology. Although the commercial and municipal sectors returned to business as usual, the research innovators, such as the Water Science Institute at Cranfield, used this period to continue developing innovations in smaller scale treatment plants using Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket UASB reactors. Through regularly sparging the reactor’s bio-membranes with gas it was shown that fouling decreased – thus making the technology durable and affordable. Through using low temperatures the reactors bi-product includes nutrient rich water, ideally used for fertigation in the irrigation dependent agricultural sectors. Dr Soares further argued that economic challenges can enable innovation; citing the current example of Brazil which mainly uses UASB reactors, and which other ‘developed’ countries now use as an exemplar for technology innovation.

Siraj Tahir Arup presenting as part of “innovations in wastewater”

Embracing collateralisation and thinking around how innovations in resourcewater could lead to innovations in other markets was taken up by our final presenter, Siraj Tahir of Arup. He outlined the ways in which Arup are championing cross-fertilisation of ideas between industries, consultancies and research institutions, to try and think long term and sustainably around the potential benefits of resourcewater across multiple platforms from a ‘circular economy’ perspective. One innovation concerned using biosolids as the base material for developing biopolymers; so enabling the plastics industry to use completely reusable and compostable materials. Mr Tahir provided numerous examples of online innovation hubs, including the ‘wetnetwork’ and ‘water dragons’ as a means for small scale innovation companies and large scale utilities to come together to problem solve; using the Sustainable Development Goals as a means to shape desired future outcomes.

Closing panel discussions “Innovations in Wastewater: Collaboration and Competition”

The evening ended with a lively panel debate, where the three presenters were joined by Matt Simpson Co-Founder of Typhon Treatment Systems Ltd and Elin Williamson Head of Research and Development at Southern Water, admirably chaired by Ian. Using CAE’s own event specific innovation, an email address ‘caequestions@brighton.ac.uk’, the audience were invited to participate through sending in questions and comments to the panel online if they wished to remain anonymous. Debating concerns around the benefits and inhibitions to innovation created by competition and collaboration within the waste/resource water industry, pressing issues were raised around supporting innovations without impacting upon intellectual property. Suffice to say, the debates continued over wine and nibbles, thoughtfully organised by CAE colleague and event co-organiser Suzy Armsden.

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